Supreme Court Decision
Milligan, Ex Parte
Arising in the throes of the Civil War, Milligan limited the ability of the president to set aside the Constitution even in times of emergency -- specifically as regards President Lincoln's lifting of the right of habeas corpus.
The decision also rejected the federal government's attempt to use a military tribunal to try "a citizen who was neither a resident of a rebellious State nor a prisoner of war, nor a person in the military or naval service" for supporting the Confederacy during the ongoing war. The defendant in question was a citizen of Indiana.
Stay tuned for a more complete synopsis of this case. Also see Ex Parte McCardle (1869) for a similar issue.
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Other decisions pertaining to Emergency Powers:
Bass v. Tingy [4 U.S. 37 (1904)] Ellsworth Court
Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States [295 U.S. 495 (1935)] Hughes Court
Schenck v. United States [249 U.S. 47 (1919)] White Court
Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer [343 U.S. 579 (1952)] Vinson Court